The Toyota KD Engine Manual. Toyota’s KD engines are a diesel series that debuted in 2000. The first generation Toyota KD engine, known as the 1KD-FTV 3.0L, was introduced in July 2000 and was first used in the Toyota Land Cruiser Prado for the Japanese market. The second-generation KD engines, the 2KD-FTVs, debuted in 2002 with a smaller 2.5L displacement. Both of these diesel engines have straight-4 cylinder engines.
Toyota KDs from the first generation are known for their good torque output, low fuel consumption, and superior power over their predecessors. However, no engine is flawless. Throughout this article, we’ll look at some of the most common issues with KD series engines, as well as their overall reliability and performance. Unfortunately, no engine is perfect, and the Toyota KD’s have some obvious flaws in their design.
Toyota has done an excellent job of producing high-quality diesel engines. However, certain issues, such as cracked pistons, are common in the first-generation KD diesel. The 2KD engines were designed to address the initial issues that drivers encountered, and they are still in production in 2022. Let’s go over the Toyota KD’s specifications, overall reliability, and the most common problems in more detail below.
Toyota KD Engine Specifications
The following are some quick specs for the first generation KD diesel engine, 1KD-FTV:
The following is a summary of the specifications for the second generation KD diesel engine, 2KD-FTV:
In terms of power, the specifications for both variants of the Toyota KD engines listed above speak for themselves. The Toyota KD engines, on the other hand, have a flaw in terms of dependability. Below, we’ll explain which cars used Toyota KD engines, dissect their flaws, and grade the Toyota KD engines’ overall dependability.
Which vehicles use Toyota KD diesel engines?
The Toyota 1KD-FTV is available in the following Toyota models:
- Prado Land Cruiser
- Hilux Surf III
The Toyota 2KD-FTV is available in the Toyota models listed below:
- Fortuner Innova
- 2003-2006 4Runner (option available only in Central and South America)
Engine Reliability on the 1KD-FTV and 2KD-FTV
Toyota’s KD diesel engines are not always the most dependable diesel engines on the market. Fortunately, the Toyota KD engines compensate for their lack of reliability by consuming less fuel and producing more power than their predecessor, the 1KZ engine. However, issues such as failed injectors causing a rough idle, high oil consumption, and engine knocking on cold starts appear to be quite common for both series of diesel KD engines. It’s worth noting that the 2KD-FTV engines have a better track record in terms of reliability than the first generation 1KD-FTV engines.
We would have to rate the overall reliability of the Toyota KD engines as average at best due to the possibility of significant problems. The likelihood of a major repair is reported far too frequently before 100,000 miles for us to rate the Toyota KD above average. Because older Toyota diesel engines are more reliable and have a longer lifespan, we have reduced the price of both the 1KD-FTV and the 2KD-FTV. However, it is important to note that many Toyota KD drivers may never experience the problems we have listed and continue to use these engines on a daily basis. Many factors, such as the use of high-quality oil and proper maintenance and repairs, have a significant impact on the overall durability and lifespan of the 1KD-FTV and 2KD-FTV.
Toyota has always taken pride in its brand strength of dependability. However, both KD engines have significant design flaws that set them apart from many of the company’s other engines. In the section that follows, we will look at some of the most common major problems and their symptoms.
The Most Common Toyota KD Engine Issues
Although not every Toyota KD engine will experience the problems listed below, we have discovered that these three issues are some of the most frequently occurring issues for both the 1KD-FTV and 2KD-FTV engines.
1) Toyota KD Pistons Cracked
Cracked pistons in diesel engines can be caused by a variety of factors. Dirty fuel injectors are one of the most common causes of cracked pistons in KD engines. The use of low-quality fuel will cause the pistons to deteriorate and crack over time. Improper exhaust gas recirculation, which can cause a variety of engine problems, is another potential catalyst for cracked pistons. Again, this is an important reminder to always use high-quality oil and perform proper maintenance to extend the life of any engine.
Some of the most common symptoms for cracked pistons within Toyota KD engines include: Smoke emitting from the engine bay Engine not starting Engine overheating Piston noise (sometimes referred to as “piston slap”) Poor acceleration/Poor engine performance
2) 1KD and 2KD Rail Injector Problems/Failure
Water pollution is a common cause of problems with the rail injectors in Toyota KD engines. Excess water in the fuel can cause corrosion and wear on metal surfaces, as well as prevent appropriate engine lubrication. Both fuel pollution and inadequate fuel filtering act as catalysts for excess water in the fuel. Problems with common rail injectors may cause a slew of other engine issues until engine damage is severe enough to need engine replacement.
Symptoms of a Rail Injector Problem
The following are the most prevalent signs of rail injector difficulties in Toyota KD engines:
- Engine light on
- Smoke coming from the engine compartment
- The engine will not start.
- Regeneration times are short.
- Filters in the DPF are clogged.
It is crucial to remember that Toyota faced a class-action lawsuit in Australia due to malfunctioning DPF filters for the Hilux, Fortuner, and Prado vehicles. Toyota has equipped all of the above-mentioned cars with a new DPF filter system as of May 2020, in order to meet national criteria.
3) Excessive oil consumption/oil leaks
The corrosion or breakage of the oil gaskets is one of the most prevalent causes of high oil consumption and oil leaks in Toyota KD engines (and most diesel engines). Damage to the oil gaskets can result in the accumulation of engine sludge; excessive engine sludge causes a variety of engine performance difficulties. Improper pressure within the turbine housings and the compressor is also frequently linked to bothersome oil leaks in Toyota KD engines. If turbo oil seals fail, oil can seep into the exhaust system, causing engine damage. This is another engine problem that can be avoided by using high-quality oil, being alert, and performing regular maintenance.
Symptoms of Excessive Oil Consumption/Oil Leakage:
The following are some of the most prevalent indicators of oil consumption issues with Toyota KD engines:
- Oil pools form beneath the automobile
- Blue/dark smoke is emitted from the engine compartment.
- Significant decline in oil level
- The odor of burning oil
- Engine performance is subpar.
Toyota KD Modifications That Are Most Common
Toyota diesel fans frequently seek tweaks and enhancements to improve the overall durability and performance of their KD engines. Certain improvements, for example, can increase the power of the Hilux and Prado models. To significantly improve torque, many Hilux and Prado drivers (as well as other diesel Toyota KD drivers) turn to custom ECU mapping. Upgraded turbos and intercoolers can also assist a custom diesel project increase power.
Replacement performance modules for specific models, such as the HiAce, are particularly popular. Upgraded modules can quickly improve efficiency and overall engine performance. A new exhaust system, in addition to enhanced performance modules, can be the missing element for any Toyota KD looking for improved airflow and louder performance exhaust sounds.
It may also be necessary to replace your fuel injectors. As previously noted in this article, the Toyota KD engine series has some flaws with its fuel injectors. However, improved fuel injectors may improve the dependability, lifetime, and overall power and performance of your diesel KD.
The design problems in the 1KD-FTV
The design problems in the 1KD-FTV are difficult to overlook, especially given the enormous class-action lawsuit filed against Toyota in 2019. DFP filter issues were so widespread and irreparable that certain auto shops earned a negative reputation and lost customers. Despite the improvement of the DFP filter system, other issues such as broken pistons and oil leaks are often reported for both generations of Toyota KD engines. These issues, like other engine difficulties, can be avoided with appropriate maintenance and the use of high-quality oil. However, because to these ongoing faults and design weaknesses, we evaluate the Toyota KD engines’ reliability as subpar at best.
Toyota KD engines, on the other hand, have retained their position in the automotive market for good reason. The 2KD-FTV was designed to address many of the design faults we identified, and it has a better reputation than the first-generation engines. Many Toyota fans have had excellent experiences with this diesel because to its high output and low fuel economy. Toyota’s brand reputation and dependability are held to a high standard. Finally, it’s clear why Toyota KD engines have had such a significant impact on the automotive market over the last few decades.